Environmental Sciences Fair Project
The Effect of Organic Pesticides on Ladybugs

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Project Information
Title: The Effect of Organic Pesticides on Ladybugs
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Grade level: Middle School - Grades 7-9
Academic Level: Ordinary
Project Type: Experimental
Cost: Low
Affiliation: Selah Intermediate School
Year: 2002
Description: Since ladybugs are helpful insects it's essential to find a way to keep them alive when farmers spray their crops. Ladybugs were sprayed by a few organic pesticides (jalapeño pepper, garlic, pyrethrum, and dill leaves). Survival rate was recorded.
Link: www.selah.k12.wa.us...

Green Pesticides

Green pesticides (also called ecological pesticides) are pesticides which are believed to be environmentally friendly and thus cause less harm to the ecosystem and animal health. In agroecology, pesticides are evaluated for minimal adverse environmental effects. Biocides include germicides, antibiotics, antibacterials, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals and antiparasites. Pesticides typically come in the form of sprays and dusts. Many ecological pesticides are biological pesticides, but others are minerals or chemical compounds.

Although the pesticides and particularly insecticides used in organic farming are generally safer than synthetic pesticides, they are not necessarily safer and more environmentally friendly than synthetic pesticides. The main criterion for organic pesticides is that they are naturally-derived, and some naturally-derived substances have been controversial. Controversial natural pesticides include rotenone, copper, nicotine sulfate, and pyrethrums However, restrictions on natural pesticides have tightened and as of 2005 rotenone, a dangerous natural pesticide, was not allowed for US organic farmers, and rotenone was not allowed under the California Organic Foods Act of 1990. Phytoalexin elicitor glucohexatose has been called a green pesticide, as has a new class of insecticides called spinosad which shows "remarkable selectivity" in destroying harmful pests and leaving beneficial insects alive.

List of Herbal Insect Sprays and Dusts

Organic sprays, and dusts Preparation
Wormwood extract Made by boiling 100 grams of dried wormwood in 1 liter of water for 20 minutes. Leave for a day. Sift and add soft soap. Thin 1 at 4 before spraying
Chive extract Made by putting fresh leaves 2-3 days in water, after which it is sifted and soft soap is added. Thin 1 at 4 before spraying.
Summer tansy dust Made by grinding dried herb, and spreading on the ground at density of 1 gram per m². Repels root fly
Stinging nettle extract Made by boiling a bucket of stinging nettles for 20-30 minutes in water, sifting it and leaving it to stand for a day. Soft soap is added at a density of 1/100 and the mixture is thinned 1 at 4 before spraying (against aphids, caterpillars) Sometimes brown sugar, brown soap and milk is also added to strengthen the mixture.
Daffodil extract Made by boiling 30 grams of daffodils for 20 minutes in 1liter of water. Leave to stand for a day, add 1/100 brown soap and dilute 1 at 4 before spraying (against moulds)
Garlic extract Made by soaking mushed garlic in water, adding soft soap at density of 1/100 (against insects)
Rhubarb extract Made by boiling 1 kg of leaves in 2 liters of water for 20 mins, adding 1/100 soft soap, sifting it and spraying it (against aphids)
Onion extract Made by leaving the leaves for a few days in water, adding 1/100 soft soap, sifting and spraying it (against aphids and caterpillars)
Sambucus extract Made by boiling 500 grams of leaves for 30 minutes in 1 liter of water, sifting and thinning it (against aphids and caterpillars)
Tobacco extract Soak old cigar butts, cigarette butts or other tobacco in water, strain, add a little dish soap and spray for aphids, whiteflies and other insects. The active ingredient is nicotine.
Stale beer It is put outside in a shallow container to attract garden slugs, that then crawl into the container and drown.

For more information (background, pictures, experiments and references): Green Pesticide

Source: Wikipedia (All text is available under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License)

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