A regenerative brake is an energy recovery mechanism which slows a vehicle by converting its kinetic energy into another form, which can be either used immediately or stored until needed. This contrasts with conventional braking systems, where the excess kinetic energy is converted to heat by friction in the brake linings and therefore wasted.
The most common form of regenerative brake involves using an electric motor as an electric generator. In electric railways the generated electricity is fed back into the supply system, whereas in battery electric and hybrid electric vehicles, the energy is stored in a battery or bank of capacitors for later use. Energy may also be stored by compressing air or in a rotating flywheel.
Vehicles driven by electric motors use the motor as a generator when using regenerative braking: it is operated as a generator during braking and its output is supplied to an electrical load; the transfer of energy to the load provides the braking effect.
Regenerative braking is used on hybrid gas/electric automobiles to recoup some of the energy lost during stopping. This energy is saved in a storage battery and used later to power the motor whenever the car is in electric mode.
Early examples of this system were the front-wheel drive conversions of horse-drawn cabs by Louis Antoine Krieger (1868-1951). The Krieger electric landaulet had a drive motor in each front wheel with a second set of parallel windings (bifilar coil) for regenerative braking.
An Energy Regeneration Brake was developed in 1967 for the AMC Amitron. This was a completely battery powered urban concept car whose batteries were recharged by regenerative braking, thus increasing the range of the automobile.
Many modern hybrid and electric vehicles use this technique to extend the range of the battery pack. Examples include the Toyota Prius, Honda Insight, the Vectrix electric maxi-scooter, and the Chevrolet Volt.
See also: Regenerative Brakes
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