A charge-coupled device (CCD) is an analog shift register that enables the transportation of analog signals (electric charges) through successive stages (capacitors), controlled by a clock signal. Charge-coupled devices can be used as a form of memory or for delaying samples of analog signals. Today, they are most widely used in arrays of photoelectric light sensors to serialize parallel analog signals. Not all image sensors use CCD technology; for example, CMOS chips are also commercially available.
"CCD" refers to the way that the image signal is read out from the chip. Under the control of an external circuit, each capacitor can transfer its electric charge to one or another of its neighbors. CCDs are used in digital photography, digital photogrammetry, astronomy (particularly in photometry), sensors, electron microscopy, medical fluoroscopy, optical and UV spectroscopy, and high speed techniques such as lucky imaging.
An intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) is a CCD that is optically connected to an image intensifier, that is mounted in front of the CCD.
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