Plant hormones (also known as phytohormones) are chemicals that regulate plant growth. Plant hormones are signal molecules produced within the plant, and occur in extremely low concentrations. Hormones regulate cellular processes in targeted cells locally and when moved to other locations, in other locations of the plant. Plants, unlike animals, lack glands that produce and secrete hormones. Plant hormones shape the plant, affecting seed growth, time of flowering, the sex of flowers, senescence of leaves and fruits. They affect which tissues grow upward and which grow downward, leaf formation and stem growth, fruit development and ripening, plant longevity and even plant death. Hormones are vital to plant growth and lacking them, plants would be mostly a mass of undifferentiated cells.
Auxins are a class of plant growth substance (often called phytohormone or plant hormone). Auxins play an essential role in coordination of many growth and behavioral processes in the plant life cycle.
Cytokinins (CK) are a class of plant growth substances (plant hormones) that promote cell division. They are primarily involved in cell growth, differentiation, and other physiological processes. Their effects were first discovered through the use of coconut milk in the 1940s by a scientist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison named Folke Skoog.
For More Information:
Plant Hormones K-12 Experiments & Background Information
Effect of Different Concentrations of IAA on Root Initiation
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