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Renewable energy science fair project:
Will multiple rotors increase the electrical output of a horizontal axis windmill




Science Fair Project Information
Title: Determine if multiple rotors will increase the electrical energy output of a horizontal axis windmill.
Subject: Renewable Energy
Grade level: Middle School - Grades 7-9
Academic Level: Ordinary
Project Type: Experimental
Cost: Medium
Awards:
1st place, Canada Wide Virtual Science Fair (2004)
1st place, Best in Fair Pinnacle Award (2004)
Affiliation: Canada Wide Virtual Science Fair (VSF)
Year: 2004
Description: A multiple rotor, horizontal axis, scale model windmill was designed and built with couplers to connect the axis to the axle of various DC motors. The scale model was used to determine the effect of different rotor attributes (size, number, distance apart and orientation of the rotors) on the resulting torque and electricity generated with various sizes of DC motors.
Link: http://www.odec.ca/projects/2004/walk4d0/public_html/
Short Background

Wind turbines can be separated into two types based by the axis in which the turbine rotates. Turbines that rotate around a horizontal axis are more common. Vertical-axis turbines are less frequently used.

Horizontal-axis wind turbines (HAWT) have the main rotor shaft and electrical generator at the top of a tower, and must be pointed into the wind. Small turbines are pointed by a simple wind vane, while large turbines generally use a wind sensor coupled with a servo motor. Most have a gearbox, which turns the slow rotation of the blades into a quicker rotation that is more suitable to drive an electrical generator.

Since a tower produces turbulence behind it, the turbine is usually pointed upwind of the tower. Turbine blades are made stiff to prevent the blades from being pushed into the tower by high winds. Additionally, the blades are placed a considerable distance in front of the tower and are sometimes tilted up a small amount.

Downwind machines have been built, despite the problem of turbulence, because they don't need an additional mechanism for keeping them in line with the wind, and because in high winds, the blades can be allowed to bend which reduces their swept area and thus their wind resistance. Since turbulence leads to fatigue failures, and reliability is so important, most HAWTs are upwind machines.

Turbines used in wind farms for commercial production of electric power are usually three-bladed and pointed into the wind by computer-controlled motors. These have high tip speeds of up to six times the wind speed, high efficiency, and low torque ripple, which contribute to good reliability. The blades are usually colored light gray to blend in with the clouds and range in length from 20 to 40 metres (65 to 130 ft) or more. The tubular steel towers range from 200 to 300 feet (60 to 90 metres) tall. The blades rotate at 10-22 revolutions per minute. A gear box is commonly used to step up the speed of the generator, although designs may also use direct drive of an annular generator. Some models operate at constant speed, but more energy can be collected by variable-speed turbines which use a solid-state power converter to interface to the transmission system. All turbines are equipped with shut-down features to avoid damage at high wind speeds.

Source: Wikipedia (All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License)

For More Information: Horizontal-Axis Wind Turbine vs. Vertical-Axis Wind Turbine

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