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Environmental sciences science fair project:
How does water speed affect turbidity in a river?

Science Fair Project Information
Title: How does water speed affect turbidity in a river?
Subject: Environmental Sciences
Grade level: Elementary School - Grades 4-6
Academic Level: Ordinary
Project Type: Experimental
Cost: Medium
Affiliation: Selah Intermediate School
Year: 2002
Description: The speed of water in the river is measured with a flow meter in different locations. River water samples are collected and tested with a turbidity meter.
Link: http://www.selah.k12.wa.us/SOAR/SciProj2002/AaronR.html
Short Background

Water Turbidity

Turbidity in open water may be caused by growth of phytoplankton. Human activities that disturb land, such as construction, can lead to high sediment levels entering water bodies during rain storms, due to storm water runoff, and create turbid conditions. Urbanized areas contribute large amounts of turbidity to nearby waters, through stormwater pollution from paved surfaces such as roads, bridges and parking lots. Certain industries such as quarrying, mining and coal recovery can generate very high levels of turbidity from colloidal rock particles.

In drinking water, the higher the turbidity level, the higher the risk that people may develop gastrointestinal diseases. This is especially problematic for immune-compromised people, because contaminants like viruses or bacteria can become attached to the suspended solid. The suspended solids interfere with water disinfection with chlorine because the particles act as shields for the virus and bacteria. Similarly, suspended solids can protect bacteria from ultraviolet (UV) sterilization of water.

In water bodies such as lakes and reservoirs, high turbidity levels can reduce the amount of light reaching lower depths, which can inhibit growth of submerged aquatic plants and consequently affect species which are dependent on them, such as fish and shellfish. This phenomenon has been regularly observed throughout the Chesapeake Bay in the eastern United States.

There are several practical ways of checking water quality, the most direct being some measure of attenuation (that is, reduction in strength) of light as it passes through a sample column of water. The alternatively used Jackson Candle method (units: Jackson Turbidity Unit or JTU) is essentially the inverse measure of the length of a column of water needed to completely obscure a candle flame viewed through it. The more water needed (the longer the water column), the clearer the water. Of course water alone produces some attenuation, and any substances dissolved in the water that produce color can attenuate some wavelengths. Modern instruments do not use candles, but this approach of attenuation of a light beam through a column of water should be calibrated and reported in JTUs.

Turbidity in lakes, reservoirs, and the ocean can be measured using a Secchi disk. This black and white disk is lowered into the water until it can no longer be seen; the depth (Secchi depth) is then recorded as a measure of the transparency of the water (inversely related to turbidity). The Secchi disk has the advantages of integrating turbidity over depth (where variable turbidity layers are present), being quick and easy to use, and inexpensive. It can provide a rough indication of the depth of the euphotic zone with a 3-fold division of the Secchi depth. However, this cannot be used in shallow waters where the disk can still be seen on the bottom.

Source: Wikipedia (All text is available under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License)

For more information (background, pictures, experiments and references): Turbidity

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